These groups have appeared within the structures of trade unions in order to resolve problems of both working and unemployed women. Around the end of the ninth and the beginning of the tenth centuries, the Kievan Rus kingdom formed. Its two administrative provinces, the Polock and the Turov Principalities, covered the area of today’s Belarus. For several centuries the Belarusian territories were strongly influenced by the Byzantine culture, including Orthodox Christianity, stone architecture, and literature. After the destruction of the Kievan Rus in the mid-thirteenth century by the Mongols the two Belarusian principalities were incorporated into the Great Lithuanian Duchy. This new administrative and political situation brought a strong Western European influence to the region, including the Roman Catholic religion. A large Jewish population also settled in Belarus in the fourteenth century.
Life expectancy at birth is 62 years for men and 74 years for women, with a population average of 68 years. Hospital treatment and some other medical and dental treatment is normally provided without fee. Belarus has several large, https://countrywaybridalboutique.com/european-women-features/belarusian-women-features/ diverse healthcare facilities, both hospitals and outpatient institutions. Specialized medicine is expanding and improving in the country, although students learn medicine in four medical institutes , while eighteen medical schools prepare other medical personnel extensive epidemics of diphtheria have been reported in recent years.
- This will help to you to determine whether or not you are compatible.
- “Gender equality is critical in all States parties to the Convention.
- One of the most prominent women’s organization to emerge was the Women’s Independent Democratic Movement.
The current population is primarily Belarusian but also includes Russians, Poles, Ukrainians, and Jews. All ethnic groups enjoy equal status, and there is no evidence of hate or ethnically-biased crimes. The Polish-Lithuanian Union created a strong political, economic, and military power in Eastern Europe. In 1569 the Great Lithuanian Duchy and the Polish Kingdom fused into a multiethnic federal state, one of the wealthiest and mightiest in Europe of the time, called the Commonwealth . Republic of Belarus, Respublika Belarus; before 1991, the country was known as the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. Sometimes called White Russia or alternatively White Ruthenia, especially in relation to the pre-1918 history of the region.
However, the COVID-19 pandemic further revealed the government’s inability to provide transparent information to the public. President Lukashenka frequently provided conflicting and misleading information and guidance about the dangers of the coronavirus, ways to reduce its spread, and the importance of mass vaccination. Evidence from the United Nations suggested that the government’s reported COVID-19 case numbers and mortality rate were vastly inaccurate. The legal framework for elections fails to meet democratic standards, and authorities have dismissed OSCE recommendations to improve it. Electoral commission members of all levels are politically aligned with and dependent on the government, and independent observers have no access to ballot-counting processes.
The State of the Physical and Social Sciences
Before 1861, when peasants were freed, only small parcels of land were in the hands of Belarusian farmers. Peasants had to work three days a week or one hundred fifty six days a year for the noblemen. In the beginning of the twentieth century small stretches of land were owned by the state , some land was communal , and the majority was in private hands . By 1917 the state, church, and gentry owned 9.3 percent while the individual farmers held 90.7 percent of all arable land.
Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Russian Women in the Anti-War Movement
Many Belarusians do not see social injustice in the low status of women, and so do not protest the situation. Critics and opposition members denounce the increasingly oppressive political atmosphere and human rights violations in Belarus under the Soviet-style http://bunleap.ligeracademyblog.org/2023/01/21/the-spotlight-initiative-to-eliminate-violence-against-women-and-girls/ authoritarianism of President Alyaksandr Lukashenko. In 1999, the year President Lukashenko was to step down, he held what was internationally considered to be a rigged national referendum. The referendum changed the constitution and allowed Lukashenk to cancel the elections and remain president.
5.2.1 Proportion of ever-partnered women and girls subjected to physical and/or sexual violence by a current or former intimate partner in the previous 12 months. In these last two years, Belarusian women have had no time to dedicate to their children, because they have been busy with survival, revolution, help to the victims, war in Ukraine, and so on. It is worth noting that, in frames of the overall trend to reduce the number of QA professionals (i.e. software testers) per developer team, the number of female developers has exceeded the number of female-testers for the first time in seven years. This is certainly a positive sign on the way to destroying the myth that the place of women in the Belarusian IT is almost exclusively recruiting and testing. As for the structure of women’s unemployment itself, the highest unemployment rate, first, is among young women who have just graduated and now cannot find a job in their specialty, and secondly, among women from 45 to 55 years old.
Domestic violence is a pervasive problem in Belarus, and police register about 150,000 incidents per year. In 2018, Lukashenka blocked a draft law on the prevention of domestic violence jointly developed by the law enforcement agencies and civil society representatives. He called attitudes against the corporal punishment of children “nonsense from the West” and insisted that “good” punishment of children could be useful to them. Threats of losing custody of children are often used to intimidate and harass political activists. Independent unions were prominent in the prodemocracy movement in the summer of 2020, striking to protest the fraudulent presidential election and police violence toward peaceful demonstrators. The state increasingly targeted and pressured workers to prevent them from going on strike. Union leaders and rank-and-file members were arrested, fined, dismissed from their posts, sent to psychiatric institutions, and forced into exile.